Because of the many uncertainties involved in estimating hazards from liquefaction and its effects, traditional methods of analysis have been shown by many recent researchers to provide inconsistent and incorrect hazard estimates. Many of these inconsistencies come from the way that engineers incorporate probabilistic ground motions into their calculations. Probabilistic or performance-based analysis methods (akin to probabilistic seismic hazard analysis) are the most appropriate methods for incorporating probabilistic ground motions, but they can be difficult to implement on routine project because of their complexity. Fortunately, new research has developed simplified probabilistic approaches to analyzing liquefaction and its effects.
Geotechnical engineers and engineering geologists that perform and/or review analyses related to liquefaction triggering, post-liquefaction settlement, lateral spread displacement, and seismic slope stability.